spoke to Moses, saying, 'Speak to all the congregation of the children of
In contrast to most of YHVH's addresses in the
previous Parashot we have been studying, here the “entire congregation of the
The theme of Parashat Kdoshim is encapsulated in 20:24b-26: "I am YHVH your Elohim who has separated you from the peoples. You shall therefore distinguish (literally “separate”) between clean animals and unclean, between unclean birds and clean, and you shall not make yourselves abominable by beast or by bird, or by any kind of living thing that creeps on the ground, which I have separated from you as unclean. And you shall be holy to Me, for I YHVH am Holy, and have separated you from the peoples, that you should be Mine". This clearly illustrates the contaminating effect that the unclean has upon Elohim's People. At the same time, it highlights the separateness of those who belong to Him and who are rendered set apart by this fact. The single verb used here for “separate” and “distinguish” is “havdel” (b.d.l, bet, dalet, lamed), used 3 times in the creation account in B’resheet 1, in regards to the separation of the light from darkness (v. 4), the separation of the water above the firmament from the water below it (vs. 6,7), and in creating heaven’s lights that were to divide the light from the darkness (vs. 14,18). Thus, the usage of the root b.d.l points to the distinct category that YHVH had allocated for His people among other people groups, as well as to the way they were to conduct their daily life.
Going back to chapter 19, we will notice that most of the injunctions or clusters thereof end with "I am YHVH your Elohim". We read about reverence for father and mother and keeping the Shabbat (v. 3). This is followed by a command to reject idols. Verse 5 deals with offering a peace offering “lirtzonchem” – translated ‘of your own free will’, but in Vayikra 23:11, regarding the command to bring the ‘beginning omer’, “lirtzonchem” is also mentioned and translated “so that you may be accepted”. Is this also the meaning of “lirtzonchem” in the case before us? If this offering is eaten on the third day (as its remains were supposed to have been burnt by the third day), then it will be considered an "abomination" that shall not be accepted. "Abomination" here is rendered by the very strong term "pigul", and is indicative of the fact that it is not only the 'holy' which is set aside and separated, but so is that which is unclean and unacceptable.
This is succeeded by how one is to treat those less fortunate than one’s self (the poor and the sojourner), by leaving for them the gleanings of the fields and vineyards, for “… I am YHVH your Elohim". The "gleanings" are especially interesting. The verb that is attached to them is "te'olel" (le'olel in the infinitive). It is a term we encountered once before, in Parashat Bo (specifically in Ex. 10:2, where it is translated "made a mockery" – of Paroh ). The root that both of these words share is a.l.l (ayin, lamed, lamed). Thus, if one does not obey the commandment to leave one's gleanings to the poor it is as though he is deliberately disregarding and mocking them, and their Maker.
Theft, deception, lying, and swearing falsely in
YHVH's name are enumerated next. These constitute "profaning"
His Name (vs. 8, 12,
"Brother", aside from its obvious meaning, could also relate to one's “fellow man”, just as do the following terms: "Associate" - amit (19:11, in the translation ‘one another, while in vs.15,17b the translation renders it as ‘neighbor’), and "re'ah", that is, “friend or fellowman” (again, more commonly rendered "neighbor" in the English translations. See 19:13,16,18). The utilization of these terms clarifies that ‘others’ are equal to one’s self, and therefore should be treated accordingly. In verse 17 there is also an instruction of commission, relating to the action that should be taken when the need arises to reprimand or rebuke one’s fellow man (rather than harbor hatred and bitterness in one’s heart). If "open rebuke is better than love carefully concealed” (Prov. 27:5), how much more does this apply when hate is the option? One is not to nurse vengeance nor bear a grudge against one's own people, logically leading to the highest dictum; that one is to love one's fellow man as one's self (v. 18), while in Hebrew the word used is “re’ah” – friend, associate. Again, this is sealed by "I am YHVH".
After the prohibitions regarding the mixing of seeds
and improper nuptials, chapter 19 continues with the tending of trees in YHVH's
Promised Land - which for the first three years are to be considered “uncircumcised”
– “arelim” (pointing to the covenant with Avraham and thus to the land’s
importance). The usage of ‘uncircumcision’ in regards to (fruit) trees may be
tied to the statement found in Dvarim 20:19, where it literally says, “for man
is the tree of the field” (see also Mark 8:24, the blind man who at first saw
“men like trees walking”). In the fourth year, the trees are to be “praises
to YHVH" - “hiluleem”, and may only be partaken of in the fifth
year (ref. 19:23-25). This continues with
prohibitions concerning all pagan idolatrous customs. "I am YHVH"
seals these passages, and is also appended to the Shabbat’s observance and to
the honor due the elderly. The next cluster deals with the sojourner, because
of the Israelites’ own experience in
Chapter 20 echoes Chapter 18 (in Parashat Acharey Mot), in dealing largely with various forms of incest, forbidden forms of cohabitation, and abominable sexual practices, which are described by the phrase, “exposing the nakedness” (again, nakedness is tantamount to not having a “covering” – “kippur” or "kapara"). “Nakedness” here is “erva” of the root a.r.h. (ayin, resh, hey). A similar word, stemming from the root a.r.r (ayin, resh, resh) and means “stripped” and “childless” is “ariri” (e.g. Gen. 15:2; Jer. 22:30). Thus, we read verses 20 and 21: “And if a man shall lie with his uncle's wife, he has uncovered his uncle's nakedness - erva. They shall bear their sin. They shall die bereft of children – arireem. If a man takes his brother's wife, it is an unclean thing. He has uncovered his brother's nakedness - erva. They shall be childless - arireem” (italics added). This makes evident the fruitlessness and lifelessness of sin, symbolizing the fact that sin results only in death (or bareness, in this case). This entire section (vs. 10-21) is preceded by: "Consecrate yourselves therefore, and be holy, for I am YHVH your Elohim. ' And you shall keep My statutes, and perform them: I am YHVH who sanctifies you. 'For everyone who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death. He has cursed his father or his mother. His blood shall be upon him" (20:7-8). Again, pointing to the sanctification theme, but with an emphasis on the centrality of sound family life by the stern warning against anyone who would dare to dishonor his parents (remember the Parasha's opening words speak of revering father and mother, in 19:3). The rest of the commandments, which deal strictly with incest, in fact relate to and elaborate on the same topic of the family's sanctity, including the very severe penalty against anyone who gives his seed – child – to Molech and against those who shut their eyes in face of this abomination (20:2-5).