Last week we
noted that much of what is recounted in our weekly Parashot (plural for
“Parasha”) bears a direct relationship to present-day situations and
circumstances, and even to our own lives. Parashat Va’ye'chi, which centers
around Ya'acov's prophetic benedictions over his sons and grandsons, is a good
example of this, as these ‘benedictions’ are much more than mere ‘well wishing’
or ‘hopes’ directed
at the Patriarch’s progeny. The words pronounced by Ya’acov constitute the Word
of YHVH embossed upon the destiny and life of His people. The last verse of
last week’s Parashat Va’yigash (47:27), as well as two more references in the
current one (49:28,29) point out that the vision for a nation, the People of
Yisrael, has already been cast. “And
The Parasha opens
with the words, "And Jacob lived (va'ye’chi) in the
The second part
of verse 29 (Ch. 47), where Yaacov addresses his son, bidding him: "put
your hand under my thigh…", takes us all the way back to Avraham and his
servant, who was charged by his master in the same manner (ref. Gen. 24:2). The strength and power of life, represented by the thigh, is
to be expressed through the hand of another – the one who promises to be
faithful and loyal to his oath. Here it is Yoseph who promises his father to
bury him with his ancestors, in the
Ya'acov's heart is thus set at rest, while in the next episode, sick and nearing death, he starts to confer his blessings. Yoseph, who is summoned to his bed, brings with him his two sons who end up being the first ones to receive the blessing. Hence the sequel of blessings of the sons of Yisrael starts out with his grandsons, Ephraim, the youngest, and then Menashe. Yeshua's familiar words concerning “the last being first” and vice versa (ref. Mt. 20:16), are certainly relevant in this instance! However, Ya'acov does not start blessing Yoseph's sons before he recounts, albeit in a somewhat modified version, what El Shaddai said to him in Luz - Beit El: “... Be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall proceed from you, and kings shall come from your body. The land which I gave Abraham and Isaac I give to you; and to your descendants after you I give this land" (35:11-12 italics added). The words that Ya’acov is about to utter now are based on that auspicious word of long ago. When blessing the boys, he includes the "fruitfulness" and the "numerousness", of the roots p.r.h - fruit - and r.b.h - much, great, plenty, respectively. "A nation - goy - and a company – kahal - of nations – goyim", in the original blessing, become now "company - kahal again - of people” – “amim” (48:4a). We shall soon see how these two terms, "goy" and "am", are dispensed between the two grandsons. "Kings shall come forth from you" in the original is omitted entirely, and rightly so, because Yoseph's sons were not to be the recipients of the kingly portion. The final part of the original blessing had to do with the Land. In the episode at hand, Ya'acov qualifies the original word “land” with the words "an everlasting possession” – “achuzat olam" (v. 4b). Achuza (“possession”), is from the root a.ch.z (alef, chet, zayin), meaning “to grasp, take hold, possess”. Being in exile, Ya'acov chooses words that would be powerfully imprinted upon the minds of his listeners (especially since in 47:11 and 27, the same root of possession is used in regard to his sons' lives in Egypt). Without repose, he adopts his two grandsons (ref. 48:5), in order to ensure that the promises just given will be fulfilled through their successive generations. He then goes on to say to Yoseph, "but your offspring that have been born after them shall be yours" (48: 6). "Offspring" here is "moledet", of the root y.l.d (yod, lamed, dalet) “to give birth” or “beget”. Hence, most times "moledet" is used in a sense of “biological family". This was the term employed when Avraham was told to leave his "family" (Gen. 12:1). In B’resheet 31:13, the angel of Elohim ordered Ya'acov to go back to the “land of his moledet". The citing of "moledet" may be one more reminder, given the circumstances, of what is no doubt an important issue with which he wishes to inculcate his posterity (that is, regarding their family origins and homeland).
It was after Ya’acov had been given the blessings and promises in Beit El-Luz that Rachel gave birth to Binyamin, in Ephrata, on the road to Beit Lechem. This was the place where she also died. Although engaged in matters of great import, pertaining to the future of the Nation, Ya’acov is clearly compelled to pause and allow the whole sad episode to engulf him all over again. And thus, he makes mention of it. Incidentally, the literal meaning of "Ephratah" is "toward Ephrat". "Ephrat" shares the root of “fruitfulness” with “Ephraim”. According to Ya'acov's words here (48:7, and Micha 5:2), Ephrat and Beit Lechem are synonymous.
All during this time, while Ya'acov is pronouncing his adoption of Yoseph's two sons, he is not aware of their presence in the room (being extremely nearsighted). But once he realizes that the two are there, Yisrael says to Yoseph, "I never expected to see your face, and behold, Elohim has let me see your seed as well" (48:11 italics added). "Expected" here is "pilalti". The root is p.l.l (pey, lamed, lamed), with its primal meaning to “intervene, interpose, or arbitrate”, and by implication, “to judge”, giving rise to "hitpalel" which is “to pray” and to "tfila" – “prayer” (e.g. 1 Sam. 1:10, 12, 26, 27; 2:1). The usage of it here, as "expect", is the only one of its kind in the entire Tanach. Ya'acov had so completely given up any hope of seeing his son that, according to his own admission, he did not (dare to) intercede or pray on his behalf, since his only 'judgement' on the matter was that Yoseph had departed this life.
Ya'acov blesses the lads while crossing his arms over them (48:14). The verb used there – “sikel” - originates from the widely used root s.ch.l (sin, chaf, lamed) which means “to understand, succeed, instruction”, thus pointing to the far-reaching implications that this action was to have in the future (Ya'acov having the foresight to do what he was doing). The essence of the blessing is put in a few words, "…may my name ("shem") and the name of my fathers… be named in them" (v. 16). Yaa'cov/Yisrael is conferring upon his ‘adopted sons’ the blessings and promises given to Avraham, Yitzchak, and to himself, which in this context are tantamount to the "name" he wishes to bestow upon them. The blessings, therefore, constitute an all-powerful 'stamp', a "name" embossed, as it were, upon the lads and upon their posterity (cf. Numbers 6:27). The Patriarch goes on to pronounce the following: "And may they grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (48:16). The original wording for "grow into a multitude"- va'yidgu"- is a verb which appears nowhere else and means, "they will become fish", referring to this creature's rate of breeding. The usage of this unusual verb is designed to call attention to the blessing, and to this specific detail. When Yoseph expresses disapproval of his father's birth order ‘confusion’, the latter explains his action, telling his bewildered son that Menashe will be a "people" ("am"), echoing the terminology he used above; but that Ephraim, now making use of "goy", another of his above-mentioned terms, will become "the fullness of the gentiles" – or "m'lo ha'goyim" in Hebrew (ref. 48:17-19 italics added).
Chadasha (New or Renewed Covenant) interprets for us the meaning of
"becoming fish", far beyond a mere numerical property. "Now as
Yeshua was walking by the
The "one portion (over his brothers)", which Ya'acov grants Yoseph at the end of this scene (48: 22), is signified by the word "shechem", meaning a “shoulder”, the specific reference being to the two ‘shoulders’ (mountains) on each side of the city by that name (i.e. Sh’chem). Thus, Ephraim's lot includes the 'shoulder' in the form of Grizim, the Mount of the Blessing, and Menahse's, the other 'shoulder,' Eival, the Mount of Curse.
It is now time
for Ya'acov's twelve sons to receive a word from their father, or as put by
Ya'acov, that which "will befall you in the latter days" (49:1). This
is the first time the expression "latter – end of - days"
- "a'charit ha'yamim" - appears in the Bible. If
compared to the usage of the same term in Isaiah 2:2, it may relate to a time
in which Yisrael's calling as a Nation of Elohim's choosing will be fulfilled. 
Let us pause to examine the root of “a’charit”, being a.ch.r (alef,
chet, resh), from which are derived, “after, last, tomorrow, other, another”, and
also… “achar”, “acharey” or “achoranit” - meaning “behind”
or “backwords”. Thus, when reference is made to “acharit” (the “end”)
there is also a “remez” (hint) to that which was “behind”, that which had
already occurred “beforehand”, indicating a circulatory movement that links the
past to the future – “worlds without end” (see also Yisha’ya’hu – Isaiah –
46:9, 10). (We noticed a similar concept In Parashat Lech Lecha – Beresheet 12-
Thus acharit ha’yamim” – end of days – conveys movement from the east toward the west (remember “acharon” also means “west”), just as was the direction of entering the tabernacle/temple all the way to the holy of holies which was situated in its westernmost section. This directional movement is confirmed by Matthew 24:27: "For as the lightning comes from the east and flashes to the west, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be” (italics added).
Before we continue to discuss some of the specific blessings, let us return to the opening verse, where we read “…that which shall befall you… (49:1). “Befall”, or “happen”, being the literal Hebrew word, is normally spelt yod, kof, resh and hey, but here it ends with an alef, rendering it “read” or “call out”, rather than “happen”. Could this seeming mistake, or typo, point to a future when these words, recorded for posterity, will be read and proclaimed by them?
The words given to the second and third sons (Shimon and Levi), predicting their dispersion among their brethren, have amazingly come to pass (ref. 49:7). Following on the heels of that is the word given to Yehuda (Judah), which starts off with a word play on the meaning of his name, different from the original meaning given to him by his mother (ref. Gen. 29:35). The root of the word and its meanings are not clear-cut. It appears to be yadah (of the root y.d.h., yod, dalet, hey), and is probably related to the word "yad" - “hand”, and thus means “to cast (such as in casting a stone or a lot), as well as to “confess or to praise”, again being connected to the imagery of raised hands. “Your brothers shall praise you - yo'du'cha" - (v. 8), seems therefore to flow into the next expression, which is "your hand - yad'cha - shall be on the neck of your enemies" (who in the future will turn out many times to be the descendants of his own brothers!). And again, Yehuda's brothers, according to Ya'acov's prediction, are also destined to "bow down" before him”. Yes, this son is destined for the "scepter" (“shevet”), but also for the judicial position, as we see by "me'chokek" (v. 10), from “chok” – “law or decree”, the root being ch.k.k. (chet, kof, kof), stemming from a verb which means “to carve” (ref. Is. 22:16) and “engrave”, and by implication to “enact laws” and thus to “dispense justice”.
But the predictions concerning Yehuda’s destiny do not stop here! The above promises are to hold true "until Shilo comes, and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples" (49:10). The term Shilo has been interpreted in a variety of ways; the most likely one is "to whom it belongs". Who truly is that one, and what is it that belongs to him? Ezekiel 21:27 helps us clarify what appears here as a mystery. There we find the expression "until He comes to whom belongs ("asher lo") judgment [or justice]". If we were to read "shilo" as "sheh'lo", it would convey the same meaning as "asher lo" in the above, namely "to whom it belongs". In both cases what ‘belongs’ to this one is something which is related to judgment and justice, and of course, according to our present text also the position of leadership (see also Jeremiah 30:21a).
Already in verse 9, even before the Shilo-sheh’lo citation, the imagery of the lion’s whelp, the young lion and the (mature) lion already evokes the expression “the Lion of the Tribe of Judah” (ref. Revelation 5:5). The next part of the blessing (49:11, 12) contains metaphors of the “donkey” and the “donkey’s colt”, both mentioned in Zechariah’s 9:9 Messianic prophecy, later to come to its fulfillment by Yeshua (ref. Matt. 21:1ff; Mark 11:1ff; Luke 19:28-35; John 12:14). Not only is the donkey mentioned, but also the “vine”. Here is where Yeshua’s declaration “I am the vine…” comes to mind (ref. John 15:5). The repeated imagery of wine may be compared to Isaiah 63:1-3, where there are several references to wine, to its color, and to the winepress. Moreover, the connection of wine to blood also takes us of course to Yeshua’s analogy (ref. Matthew 26:27-29, etc.), and to the terrifying judgment scene of Revelation 19:12-15, where his eyes are also mentioned, and described as being “like flames of fire”. In verse 12 of our text, the Hebrew for the color of the eyes (“kach’lili”) is “red” (“redder than wine”), clarifying this analogy. Thusly Yehuda’s destined future is strongly interwoven with his Messiah.
The word given to Dan contains a reference to the meaning of his name, which is "judge" (49:16). When it comes to Gad, Ya’acov changes the meaning of his name. Whereas his mother related the name to "luck" (Gen. 30:11), here Ya'acov relates it to “raiding bands”, the verb being, g.d.d (gimel, dalet, dalet), the original meaning of which is “cutting and making inroads”.  It is said of Gad that “a troop shall raid him”, but that (literally) “he shall raid their heel” (49:19 italics added). And of his half brother, Dan, it says that he will “bite the horse’s heel, so that his rider falls backwards” (v. 17 italics added). Thus, the sons of Yaacov, the one who held the 'heel' at birth and who 'followed' at birth (both connected to the root a.k.v and hence to his name and to heel), are, or will be, displaying the same ‘a.k.v.’ trait.
Fruitfulness is alluded to in Yoseph's blessing, as he is twice named here "ben porat", literally "son of fruitfulness" (49: 22). The word to Yoseph is replete with blessings of plenty, fruitfulness, might, prowess, and honor; but also refers to the hatred which was and will be directed toward him. Yoseph is to be a "nah'zir" (v. 26) to his brothers (translated “separated from, or distinguished among his brothers”). A "nah'zir" is one especially consecrated and dedicated to YHVH. This title can refer to anyone with a special calling, such as Shimshon (Samson, Jud. 13:5), or to a person who takes upon himself a Nazarite vow (Num. 6:21). The noun of the same root is “neh’zer”, and means a “crown” and in that way is also connected to the priesthood (see Ex. 29:6 regarding the priest’s “miter of holiness”). Interestingly, “nah’zir” is mentioned here in the same breath as the “top of Joseph’s head” (49:26), which literally makes Yoseph the “crown” of his brothers.
If the word to Yehuda points so clearly to the Messiah, some of what is being said to Yoseph, and of him, may also be interpreted as referring to a greater figure. It is no wonder then that in Jewish tradition, alongside the victorious Messiah ben David (from Yehuda's house), there is also a Messiah ben Yoseph, who is in the image of the 'literal' Yoseph and according to his prophetic blessing will be hated and experience agony (49:23), yet is also powerful (v. 24), fruitful, and distinguished.
After Ya'acov's death, his sons express fear lest their brother Yoseph would take the opportunity to avenge himself of them. They therefore approach him with a statement, which their father had supposedly made before he died, asking Yoseph to forgive them. Not only is there no record of such a statement, there is also no record of Ya'acov ever finding out what his sons had committed. Upon hearing these words and the sentiment behind them, "Joseph wept" (ref. 50:17), recalling to mind Yeshua's reaction to the lack of faith and trust displayed by His closest friends (ref. John 11:35).
With Parashat Va'ye’chi ("and he lived"), the entire book of B’resheet comes to a close. "Va’ye'chi," "and he lived", is symbolic of Elohim’s sovereign intentions as to the fulfillment of His covenant with Avraham, Yitzchak, and Ya'acov. Thus, not only do they live on in their seed, but in the next phase of their ‘existence,’ they also become numerous, multiplying in the land of their sojourning.
1 Moses on the Witness Stand, Shlomo Ostrovski, Keren Ahava Meshichit, Jerusalem, 1976, 1999.
3 The New Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Lexicon,
Francis Brown Hendrickson. Publishers, Peabody, Mass. 1979.
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